To explore the regulation of genome edited crops, this chapter describes the regulatory systems adopted by different countries as well as how the Cartagena Biosafety Protocol might apply. It finds there is a continuum of oversight, with some countries applying their GMO biosafety laws to all genome edited crops and other countries exempting certain genome edited techniques and/or products from any special oversight. For countries with what on the surface seem like similar regulatory policies, when their regulations are applied to identical products, they often produce different results, which will make international harmonization difficult. In addition, how much oversight to impose on different crops tends not to be based on scientific evidence. Finally, the regulatory treatment for multi-edited products is unclear. It will take time and the development of additional genome edited crops before there is sufficient clarity on how all types of genome edited crops will be regulated.
Table of contents
2 Background on genome editing and its regulation
3 Whether the Cartagena Biosafety Protocol applies to genome-edited crops
4 Country case studies demonstrating regulation of genome-edited crops
5 Analysis of regulations in different countries
6 Conclusion and future trends