Type: Chapter

Controlling black leaf streak disease (BLSD) in banana: the case of Costa Rica


Pablo Chong

ESPOL Polytechnic University (Ecuador)

Claudiana Carr

Cropland Biosciences (Costa Rica)

Gilberth Murillo

Cropland Biosciences (Costa Rica)

Mauricio Guzmán

Cropland Biosciences (Costa Rica)

Randy Villalobos

National Banana Corporation (CORBANA) (Costa Rica)

Jorge Sandoval

Cropland Biosciences (Costa Rica)


Publication date:

11 March 2024

ID: 9781835451014

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The main foliar disease in bananas is black leaf streak disease (BLSD), also known as black Sigatoka, which is caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis. Since most commercial banana varieties are susceptible to BLSD, the disease can only be controlled in the wet tropics, with frequent fungicide applications. Although systemic fungicides have played a key role in disease control, increases in fungicide resistance in P. fijiensis populations has lowered the efficacy of treatments and consequently resulted in increased frequencies of fungicide applications. This development raises serious questions concerning sustainable disease control, occupational health, and environmental risks. This chapter reviews the history of BLSD control in Costa Rica, with a focus on the use of demethylation inhibitors. This review can be used as an example to underscore the need for alternative and sustainable disease control methods in global banana production.

Table of contents

  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Fungicides used for black leaf streak disease management
  • 3 Fungicide application programs
  • 4 Assessing levels of fungicide reaching pathogens
  • 5 Trends in fungicide resistance
  • 6 Understanding fungicide resistance in
  • 7 Improving black leaf streak disease management: integrating molecular parameters
  • 8 Conclusion: the long road to sound black leaf streak disease management
  • 9 Acknowledgements
  • 10 Where to look for further information
  • 11 References