Type: Chapter

Advances in understanding apple fruit development


A. N. Lakso

Cornell University

M. C. Goffinet

Cornell University

Publication date:

09 May 2017

ID: 9781838790042

E-Chapter format

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Understanding the ways in which apples grow and develop is crucial for achieving sustainable apple cultivation, which means a regulated crop of apples that provides as high a yield as possible of desired quality while allowing the development of a good and consistent return bloom and cropping in subsequent years. This chapter examines how apples grow and ripen (basic structure, growth habit and physiology), some of the factors that support or limit growth, why fruit abscise and how growers can manipulate fruit growth and abscission to optimize cropping. Among other topics, the chapter explores in detail seasonal growth patterns, the chemical composition of apples in different seasons, the role of hormones in abscission and seasonal ripening patterns. The chapter suggests ways to model and prevent apple thinning, and suggests future trends for research in this area

Table of contents

1 Introduction
2 Developmental sequence of apple growth
3 Seasonal growth pattern of an apple
4 Chemical composition and seasonal changes in apples
5 Fruit abscission and growth rate
6 Fruit ‘sets’
7 Role of hormones in fruit development and abscission
8 Competition within the flower/fruit cluster
9 Seasonal patterns of respiration and ripening
10 Factors influencing fruit growth
11 Regulation of cropping for sustainability
12 Modelling to integrate factors in thinning
13 Molecular biology and apple cultivation
14 Future trends and conclusion
15 Where to look for further information
16 References