In a typical palm plantation, almost 70% of the fresh fruit bunches are turned into wastes in the form of empty fruit bunches, fibres and shells, as well as liquid effluent. Until recently, most of the wastes from palm oil mills were either burnt in the open or thrown away in waste ponds or open areas. This contributed enormously to global climate change by emitting carbon dioxide and methane. This chapter reviews the technological advancements which now make it possible to convert palm oil waste products into useful energy or recycle them into value-added products to generate additional profits for the industry.
Table of contents
2 Palm oil mills and their wastes: overview
3 Residues after processing: kernel shells, mesocarp fibres and effluent
4 Residues after processing: empty fruit bunches (EFBs)
5 Cogeneration technologies
7 Where to look for further information